The method detection limit (MDL) is defined as the minimum concentration of a substance that can be measured and reported with 99% confidence that the analyte concentration is greater than zero and is determined from analysis of a sample in a given matrix containing the analyte.
The MDL procedure now uses method blanks to calculate an MDL, in addition to the spiked samples that have always been used to calculate the MDL. As a result, the new definition of the MDL is: “The method detection limit (MDL) is defined as the minimum measured concentration of a substance that can be reported with 99% confidence that the measured concentration is distinguishable from method blank results.” The value calculated from the spiked samples is called the MDLS. The method blank samples are used to calculate the MDLb, which is a very similar calculation that also calculates the 99% confidence level that the result is derived from the sample rather from contamination/noise. The MDL is the higher of the two values (either the MDLS calculated using spiked samples or the MDLb calculated using method blanks). EPA considers this change important because as detector sensitivity improves, the background contamination of the laboratory, consumable supplies, and equipment can be more important in determining the detection limit than the sensitivity of the instrument.
The MDL now requires that the samples used to calculate the MDL are representative of laboratory performance throughout the year, rather than on a single date.
A laboratory has the option to pool data from multiple instruments to calculate one MDL that represents multiple instruments.